Let me give you the punch line up front: 65% of the treatments currently in human trials have been funded by JDRF. (And the number is 73% for the later phase trials) This is a strong impact; one that any non-profit should be proud of. This summary does not include Artificial Pancreas research or stem cell growth trials.
Below is a list of all the potential cures, grouped by phase of trial that they are currently in, and separated into potential cures that JDRF has funded, and potential cures that JDRF has never funded.
The list is a list of treatments, and many of these are being tested in more than one clinical trial. For example, the "ATG and autotransplant" treatment is actually running three trials, but since they are all testing the same treatment, it is only one item in the list. The list below uses the following marks to show the nature of the treatments:
(Established) One or more trials are open to people who have had type-1 diabetes for over a year.
(Prevention) This treatment is aimed at preventing type-1 diabetes, not curing it.
Also remember that I give an organization credit for funding a treatment if they funded it at any point in development; I don't limit it to the current trial. For example, JDRF is not funding the current trials for AAT, but they did fund earlier research into it, which helped it grow into human trials. I include indirect funding of various kinds. For example, the JDRF funds nPOD and helps to fund ITN and several other organizations, so I include research done by these other groups as well, as being indirectly JDRF funded.
Cures in Phase-III Human Trials
Summary: there are no treatments aimed at curing type-1 diabetes which are in phase-III trials (under the definition of cure that I use).
Cures in Phase-II Human Trials
Summary: there are a total of 15: 11 of them have been funded by JDRF, and 4 have not. Here are the treatments that have been funded by JDRF:
- Abatacept by Orban at Joslin Diabetes Center
- Aldesleukin (Proleukin) at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
- Diabecell by Living Cell Technologies (Established)
- Diamyd, Ibuprofen ("Advil") and Vitamin D by Ludvigsson at Linköping University
- Oral Insulin (Preventative)
- Rituximab by Pescovitz at Indiana
- Sitagliptin and Lansoprazole at Sanford Health
- Stem Cell Educator by Zhao (Established)
- Teplizumab (AbATE study team)
- Umbilical Cord Blood Infusion by Haller at University of Florida
- Xoma 52 by Xoma Corp (Established)
- ATG and autotransplant by Burt, and also Snarski, and also Li
- Atorvastatin (Lipitor) by Willi at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
- Brod at University of Texas-Health Science Center
- Vitamin D by Stephens at Nationwide Children's Hospital (Prevention)
Summary: there are a total of 22: 13 of them are funded by JDRF and 9 are not. Here is the list funded by JDRF:
- Alefacept by TrialNet
- AAT (Alpha-1 Antitrypsin) by OmniBio and also Kamada
- ATG and GCSF by Haller at University of Florida (Established)
- TOL-3021 by Bayhill Theraputics (Established)
- CGSF by Haller at University of Florida
- Trucco at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (Established)
- IBC-VS01 by Orban at Joslin Diabetes Center
- Leptin by Garg at University of Texas
- Nasal insulin by Harrison at Melbourne Health
- Polyclonal Tregs by both Trzonkowski and Gitelman
- Pro insulin peptide by Dayan at Cardiff University
- Proleukin and Rapamune by Greenbaum at Benaroya Research Institute (Established)
- Lisofylline by DiaKine
- BCG by Faustman at MGH (Established)
- CGSF and autotransplant by Esmatjes at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Established)
- Encapsulated Islets at University clinical Hospital Saint-Luc (Established)
- Etanercept (ENBREL) by Quattrin at University at Buffalo School of Medicine
- GABA by Lunsford at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
- Monolayer Cellular Device (Established)
- Rilonacept by White at University of Texas
- The Sydney Project, Encapsulated Stem Cells (Established)
- Pioglitazone by Wilson at Stony Brook
37 in total
24 funded by JDRF
So 65% of the human trials currently underway are funded (either directly or indirectly) by JDRF. Everyone who donates to JDRF should be proud of this huge impact; and everyone who works for JDRF or volunteers for it, should be doubly proud.
Just Looking at Trials on Established Type-1 Diabetics
11 of these treatments (29%) are being tested on established type-1 diabetics.
Of these, 6 are funded by JDRF
So 55% of the trials recruiting established type-1 diabetics are funded by JDRF.
Compared to Last Year
In 2012 there were 38 treatments in clinical trials, in 2013 there are 37 (drop of 3%)
In 2012 there was 1 treatment in Phase-III trials, in 2013 there are none (drop of 100%).
In 2012 there were 14 treatments in Phase-II trials, in 2013 there are 15 (growth of 7%).
In 2012 there were 23 treatments in Phase-I trials, in 2013 there are 22 (drop of 4%).
How I Count Trials for This Comparison
- I give an organization credit for funding a cure if it funded that cure at any point in it's development cycle.
- I mark the start of a research trial when the researchers start recruiting patients (and if there is any uncertainty, when the first patient is dosed). Some researchers talk about starting a trial when they submit the paper work, which is usually months earlier.
- For trials which use combinations of two or more different treatments, I give funding credit, if the organization in the past funded any component of a combination treatment, or if they are funding the current combined treatment. Also, I list experiments separately if they use at least one different drug.
- The ITN (Immune Tolerance Network) has JDRF as a major funder, so I count ITN as indirect JDRF funding.
- I have made no attempt to find out how much funding different organizations gave to different research. This would be next to impossible for long research programs, anyway.
- Funding of research is not my primary interest, so I don't spend a lot of time tracking down details in this area. I might be wrong on details.
- I use the term "US Gov" for all the different branches and organizations within the United States of America's federal government (so includes NIDDK, NIAID, NICHD, etc.)
- I don't work for the US Gov, JDRF, or any of the other organizations discussed here. I have a more complete non-conflict of interest statement on my web site.
Finally, please remember that my blog (and therefore this posting) covers research aimed a curing or preventing type-1 diabetes that is currently being tested in humans. There is a lot more research going on, not covered here.
Please think of this posting as being my personal "thank you" note to all the JDRF staff, volunteers, and everyone who donates money to research a cure for type-1 diabetes:
Finally, if you see any mistakes or oversights in this posting, please tell me! There is a lot of information packed into this small posting, and I've made mistakes in the past.
Joshua Levy -- http://cureresearch4type1diabetes.blogspot.com
publicjoshualevy at gmail dot com
All the views expressed here are those of Joshua Levy, and nothing here is official JDRF or JDCA news, views, policies or opinions. My daughter has type-1 diabetes and participates in clinical trials, which might be discussed here. My blog contains a more complete non-conflict of interest statement. Thanks to everyone who helps with the blog.